Great Lakes Shipping

Downward Bound's

Great Lakes Shipping Bibliography

 pg. 2

This site is a part of the USGenWeb project and our home port is the MIGenWeb project, although it will encompass "all" Great Lakes shipping areas.  

Not sure where to start your research? Don't know what information is available? Try this list of books and magazine articles. This pathfinder does not include every book or magazine article ever written about Great Lakes shipping but this bibliography will get you started in researching the maritime history of the Great Lakes. New entries will added as books and magazines are published or "discovered!"

Atlases | Bibliographies | Biographies | Car ferries | Coast Guard
Company Histories | Disasters | Lighthouse keepers | Lighthouses
Magazines | Maritime History - General | Sailor Lists
Sailor & Ship tales | Ship Histories | Shipbuilding | Ships - Registers
Shipwrecks | Trivia | US Army Corps of Engineers
 
Sailor Lists  Page Index
"Log of the brig 'Mayflower' 1860-1861" by Ryan Taylor. Families vol 36 no. 2(June 1997): 151.
A list of seamen on the run from Ogdenburg, NY and Detroit. index for a logbook which is located in the Upper Canada Village Library in Morrisburg, Ont.
 
Ship Masters' Association Directory 1902. Cleveland, OH: Grand Financial Secretary, 1902. [ship captains]
 
Ship Masters' Association Directory, Published Yearly to Present. Cleveland, OH: Grand Financial Secretary. [ship captains] - some issues online in link.
More coming on this soon.
 
Sailor & Ship Tales  Page Index
Early stories of the Great Lakes. New York: Century Company, 1893. no index
 
Ghost ships of the Great Lakes. by Dwight Boyer. Cleveland, OH: Freshwater Press, 1968.
 
Great Lakes reader. edited by Walter Havighurst. New York: Macmillan, 1966. no index.
Written in first-person narratives, Havighurst has gathered stories, diaries, journals, and letters and has woven their experiences into a story detailing the shaping of great inland maritime empire.
 
Great heroism on the Great Lakes. by Curt Haseltine. Detroit, MI: Freshwater Press, 1960.
 
Haunted Lakes: Great Lakes ghost stories, superstitutions, and sea serpents. by Frederick Stonehouse. Duluth, MN: Lake Superior Port Cities, 1997. index
 
Ladies of the lakes. by Jim Clary. Lansing, MI: MDNR, 1981. index.
Clary illustrates the each ship's history both in prose and picture. Chapter topics are: Tashmoo, City of Detroit III, Put-in-Bay, South American, Greater Detroit, Columbia, David Dows, Lucia A. Simpson, U.S.S. Michigan, Battle of Lake Erie (about the naval battle - War of 1812), Roger Blough, Carl D Bradley, Edmund Fitzgerald, and Cliffs Victory.
 
Ladies of the lakes II. by Jim Clary. West Bloomfield, MI: A & M, 1992. index.
In this second volume of the series, Clary focuses the ships caught in November 1913 storm and all the November storms through the years. Chapter topics are: Charles S. Price, Regina, Wexford, Argus, James Carruthers, John A. McGean, Lightship No. 82, barge Plymouth, Martin, Hydrus, H B Smith, Leafield, Isaac M. Scott, Mackinaw, Argo, Noronic, Stewart Cort, Seeandbee, Huron Lightship, Aquarama, and Martin.
 
Lore of the lakes. by Dana Thomas Bowen. Cleveland, OH: Freshwater Press, 1940. ship name index.
Bowen shares "tales of sturdy lake vessels from the earliest explorer and fur trader to the latest streamlined steamer." Extras: a chronology of major disasters for shipping industry and general shipping (1492-1940).
 
Memories: of the Lakes: told in story and picture. by Dana Thomas Bowen. Cleveland, OH: Freshwater Press, 1946. index of ships.
 
"S. S. Birchglen." by Howard W. Serig, Jr. Oceans vol 20 (Sept/Oct 1987): 46-55.
Written by a passenger aboard the ship.
 
Schooner days in Door County. by Walter M Hirthe. Minneapolis, MN: Voyageur Press, 1986.
 
Stories of the Great Lakes. by Earl Parsons. Canton, OH: Rob Roy Graphic Arts, 1964. ship name index.
A former seaman on the Great Lakes, Parsons presents sailor's yarns and legends in such a way as to give an "insight as to how the ordinary sailor saw it." Chapters included the ships: Adriatic, City of Buffalo, R L Barnes, Henry Cort, Eugene J Buffington, Crete, City of Cleveland III, Cyprus, Don Juan, G J Grammar, Helena, Irving S Olds, Onoko, Schoolcraft, John Sherwin, Siberia, Tashmoo, Robert Wallace, Walk on the Water, Yuma (whaleback), and Zillah. Three schooners are included: J T Wing, Thomas Parsons, and David Wallace. A single ferryboat is included: Columbia
 
Strange adventures of the Great Lakes. by Dwight Boyer. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1974. index
 
Ten more tales of the Great Lakes. by Skip Gillham. St. Catherines, Ont: Stonehouse Publications, 1989. no index.
 
Ship Histories  Page Index
 
"Bringing up the Indiana " by Saralee R. Howard-Filler, Micke Smith, Charles Orser. Michigan History Nov/Dec 1980: 64-66.
"The day the Arizona burned: 1887 Marquette spectacle remembered." The Keystone. Vol 20 no. 4(Winter 1987): 16-19. [steamship]
 
City of Grand Haven (scow schooner). Archival materials (1 folder) located at Bowling Green State University. Ship built in 1872 at Grand Haven, MI.
 
"The David Dows." by Barbara Ulrich. Historic Illinois. vol 13 no. 5 (Feb 1991): 2-7.
 
"Downbound: the history of the early Great Lakes propeller Indiana." by Paul Forsythe Johnston. The American Neptune Vol 55 no. 4 (Fall 1995): 323-355
 
Erie L. Hackley
 
"Fednav marks 50 years." Seaway Review. Vol 22 no. 3 (Jan-Mar 1994): 15-18. [Fednav - a Canadian company.]
 
"The Grand Haven Rig: A Great Lakes Phenomenon." by Jay C. Martin. American Neptune Vol 51 no. 3: 195+.
 
Henry Clay
 
James McBride (brig). Archival materials (1 folder) located at Bowling Green State University. A two-masted brig that operated between 1848 and 1857 on the Great Lakes.

Museum of Great Lakes history: aboard the schooner J. T. Wing: a branch of the Detroit Historical Museum on the South Shore of Belle Isle. by Robert E. Palmer. Detroit, MI: Detroit Historical Commission, 1950?. 6 pages.
 
The Schooner JENNIE GRAHAM
 
The waves: Pere Marquette No. 18: her final days. by Steven D. Elve. Lowell, MI: S D Elve, 1989.
 
The Wells Burt, a historical profile. by John M. McManamon. Chicago: Chicago Maritime Society, 1989.

"The Wells Burt -- Great Lakes schooner." by Valerie Olson. Historic Illinois. vol 13 no. 5 (Feb 1991): 2-7.
 
The wreck of the Asia: Ships, shoals, storms and a Great Lakes Survey. by Robert Higgins. Waterloo: Escart Press, 1995.
 
The wreck of the Maria Richmond. by James P. Frye. 1902. Archive /manuscript housed at the Bentley Library (University of Michigan).
 
Shipbuilding  Page Index
Port Arthur built: An illustrated history of the Port Arthur Shipbuilding Company, 1910-1993. by David A Benedet. Thunder Bay, Ont: D A Benedet, 1994.
 
Port Weller Dry Docks Limited, Ontario, Canada. Port Weller, Ont: Port Weller Dry Docks, 1964.

"Port Weller Dry Docks marks 50 years." Seaway Review vol 25 no. 2 (Oct- Dec 1996): 49, 51.

The shipbuilders of Port Weller. by Skip Gillham. St Catherines, Ont: Riverbank Traders, 1996.

Shipbuilding at Manistee. by Steve Harold. Manistee, MI: S. Harold, 1979. no index.
The book begins with a 2-3 page history of Manistee's shipbuilding industry. List of all ships built in Manistee shipyards. Chapter titles include the Mary Stockton, D L Filer, Emma Thompson, Eva Robinson, Maggie Marshall, William Crippen, Isabella Sands, Daisy Day, and J E Rumbell. A biographical sketch of the Reitz brothers is included. Extras: a list of the ships built in Manistee are found in the last few pages of the book.
 
Shipbuilding on the Saginaw. by Catherine C. Baker. Bay City, MI: Museum of the Great Lakes, 1976.
The book is divided into sections which include: Stephen R Kirby, Samuel J Tripp, John A Weed, George Carpenter, Thomas Arnold, William Crosswaite, Chesley Wheeler, William M Dixon, Hubbard Church, Thomas B Raymond, B M Ballentine & Co, Tom Boston, Capt. P B Hitchcock, Capt. James Davidson, Frank Wheeler, Saginaw Shipbuilding Co., Defoe Boat & Motor Works, and Defoe Shipbuilding Co. Extras: a list of ships in Saginaw.
 
The ships of Collingwood. by Skip Gillham. St Catherines, Ont: Riverbank Traders, 1992. [Collingwood Shipyards - Ontario]
 
The ships of Port Weller. by Skip Gillham. St Catherines, Ont: Riverbank Traders, 1992.
 

Ships - Registers  Page Index
Books found here provide catalog information, such as dimensions, owners, etc.
 
Ahoy & farewell II: 1969 through 1994. by Marine Historical Scotia of Deteroit. Detroit, MI: The society: 1996.

Ahoy & farewell; twenty-fifth anniversary of the Marine Historical Society of Detroit. by Marine Historical Society of Detroit. Grosse Pointe, MI: The society: 1969.

Great Lakes bulk carriers 1869-1985. by John F. Devendorf. Niles, MI: J F Devendorf, 1996.

Great Lakes Red Book. Cleveland, OH: Freshwater Press, 1903- . [annual] Shipping directory contains: Ship, Owners, Masters and Engineers.
 
Great Lakes ships we remember. edited by Peter J. Van der Linden. Cleveland: Freshwater Press, 1979. index
Great Lakes ships we remember II. by Peter J. Van der Linden. Cleveland: Freshwater Press, 1984. index

Great Lakes ships we remember III: A photo-history of selected Great Lakes Great Lakes ships. by Peter J. Van der Linden. Cleveland: Freshwater Press, 1994. index
Great Lakes steam vessels. Drawings by Samuel Ward Stanton. Meriden Gravure Co., 1962. captions for pen and ink drawings.
 
Greenwood's guide to Great Lakes Shipping. Cleveland, OH: Freshwater Press, 1959- present. [annual]

Greenwood's and Dill's Lake Boats. 1964- . [annual]

Lake Boat. by John O. Greenwood. Cleveland, OH: Freshwater Press [annual]

The Lakers (Vol 1 & 2). by Eric C. Hirsimaki. N. Olmsted, OH: Milespost Publishing Co., 1987. ship index
Olmsted traces the development of classic Great Lakes bulk carriers and their growth in size. Over 100 color photographs included. Photo captions include dimensions, ownership throughout he years, history and disposition of boat. Vol 1 focuses on straight-line deck bulk carriers. Vol II looks at the increase of bulk carriers' hold capacity.
 
Merchant steam vessels of the United States, 1790-1868; the "Lytle-Holdcamper List". by William M Lytle, Forrest R Holdcamper. Staten Island, NY: Steamship Historical Society of America, 1975.
 
Merchant steam vessels of the United States, 1807-1868; the "Lytle List". by William M Lytle. Mystic, CT: Steamship Historical Society of America, 1952.
 
Namesakes, 1930-1955: Former vessels on the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River that existed in the quarter century between 1930 and 1955. by John O. Greenwood. Cleveland, OH: Freshwater Press, 1978.

New namesakes of the Lakes: A factual story with photographs of every currently existing commercial freight vessel and carferry in the Great Lakes fleet telling the "why" and the meaning of each vessel's name. by John Orville Greenwood. Cleveland, OH: Freshwater Press, 1975.

Namesakes of the '90's: The factual story with photographs of currently existing commercial freight, passenger and carferry vessels in the Great Lakes fleet telling the "why" and the meaning of each vessel's names with 350 ship names: Cross-referenced. by John Orville Greenwood. Cleveland, OH: Freshwater Press, 1991.
Ships of the Great Lakes: A pictorial history. Paintings by Karl Kuttruff; introduction by Robert E. Lee; captions by David T Glick. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University, 1976.
In this book, the authors represent each style of ship that have sailed on the Great Lakes. Each painting had a paragraph-long caption. 31 Ships are included: Le Griffon, Welcome, Nancy, Lawrence, Walk in the Water, Michigan, Vandia, U.S.S. Michigan, May Flower, Mackinac Boat, Challenge, Milton, Champion, Lucia A Simpson, David Dows, Onoko, Lansdowne, Barge 101, Sidney O Neff, Yukon, John Ericsson, Pere Marquette, C F Bielman Jr., Wyandotte, United States, Renown, South American, U.S. Light Vessel 103, Henry Ford II, Stewart J Cort, and Paul Thayer.
 
Ships that never die: Brief accounts of forty-five well-known ships of the Great Lakes. by Edward J. Dowling. Detroit, MI: Marine Historical Society of Detroit, 1952.

"Steamboats on Lake Erie [from White Pigeon Repbulican, May 15, 1839]." Michigan Historical Collections Vol 14(1889): 543-44.

Vanishing canallers. by Edward J. Dowling. 1986. Archive/manuscript housed at Bowling Green State University.
 
 

Shipwrecks  Page Index
The body and the bell: A riddle of the old Southampton. by John B Weichel. Southampton, Ont: J Weichel, 1990. [Pewabic]
 
The waves: Pere Marquette No. 18: her final days. by Steven D. Elve. Lowell, MI: S D Elve, 1989.
 
ONLINE Reader Shares Father's Shipwreck - The Francis Widlar. by: Dan Rowe editor Monroe Guardian. Lake Tales Articles published 5 January 1997. Contains list of sailors.
 
Dangerous Coast: Pictured Rocks shipwrecks. by Frederick Stonehouse. Marquette, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1997. index
 
"The day the Arizona burned: 1887 Marquette spectacle remembered." The Keystone. Vol 20 no. 4(winter 1987): 16-19. [steamship]
 
Directory of shipwrecks of the Great Lakes. by Karl E Heden. Boston: Bruce Humphries Publishers, 1966.
 
"Excursion to death." by John Griggs. American Heritage. vol 16 no. 2(February 1965) :33-36, 111. [firsthand Account of the excursion ship Eastland disaster]
 
Explore Great Lakes shipwrecks. by Kimm A. Stabelfeldt. Wauwatosa, WI: Stabelfeldt Publications, 1992. 2 volumes.

Ghost ships, gales and forgotten tales: True adventures of the Great Lakes. by Wes Oleszewski. Marquette, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1995. index

Great Lakes guide to sunken ships. by Karl E Heden. Boston, MA: Branden Books, 1993.
 
Great Lakes shipwreck stories: (a collection of articles published in Diving times newspaper). by Charles E Feltner. Dearborn, MI: C & J Feltner, 1981.
 
Great Lakes shipwrecks: and other Great Lakes stories, a compilation of original stories from the pages of the Great Lakes Gazette. Grand Marais, MI: Voyager Press, 1977.
 
Great Lakes shipwrecks & survivals. by William Ratigan. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdsman, 1960.
 
Great Lakes shipwrecks: Huron, Erie, Ontario. by Pete Caesar. Green Bay, WI: Great lakes Marine Research, 1977.
Great Lakes shipwreck list. by Robert H Robison. Detroit, MI: Maritime Research, 1961.
 
ONLINE A great rescue by Captain Ocha, who, late in the fall of 1912 died at Eagle Harbor Life Saving Station. by W H Law. Detroit, MI: unknown, 1910?

Great wrecks of the Great Lakes. by Frederick Stonehouse. Marquette, MI: Harboridge Press, 1973.
 
Heroes of the Great Lakes: With an account of the recent great disasters. By William Hainstock Law. Detroit: Pohl Print Co, 1906.
 
History of accidents, casualties and wrecks on Lake Superior 1847 to 1930. Saint Paul, MN: St Paul District Corps of Engineers, 1938.
 
Home port Erie: Voices of silent images. by Robert J. MacDonald. Erie, PA: Erie County Historical Society, 1997. index
 
Hurricane warning; notable storms involving sailing ships on our sea coasts and Great Lakes. by Frank Meier. New York: E P Dutton, 1947.
 
Ice water museum. by Wes Oleszewski. Marquette, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1993.
 
Isle Royale shipwrecks. by Frederick Stonehouse. Au Train, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1977.
 
Julius F. Wolff Jr.'s Lake Superior shipwrecks. by Julius F. Wolff. Duluth, MN: Lake Superior Port Cities, 1990.
 
Keweenaw shipwrecks: a survey of maritime accidents from Big Bay Point, west to Ontonagon, with emphasis on the Keweenaw Peninsula. by Frederick Stonehouse. Au Train, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1988.

Lake Huron's death ship. by Gregory James Busch. Saginaw, MI: Busch Oceanographic Equipment, 1975. [Pewabic shipwreck]
 
Lake Superior's "shipwreck coast": A survey of maritime accidents from Whitefish Bay's Point Iroquois to Grand Marais, Michigan. by Frederick Stonehouse. Au Train, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1985.
 
Marquette Shipwrecks. by Frederick Stonehouse. Marquette, MI: Shipwrecks Unlimited, 1980.

Munising Shipwrecks. by Frederick Stonehouse. Au Train, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1989.
 
The Mystery Ship from 19 fathoms : Built 1846, sank 1864, raised 1969. by Mystery Ship Seaport. Menominee, MI: The Seaport, 1970. [Mystery Ship (Schooner)]
 
Mysteries and histories: Shipwrecks of the Great Lakes. by Wes Oleszewski. Marquette, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1997. index
 
 
Last Voyage of Walk-in-the-water by Sketch of Life and Times of James Witherell: Report of the Pioneer Society of Michigan Vol. IV, published 1883 Pgs. 112 -115
 
A narrative of the wreck of the schooner New Connecticut, on Lake Erie, Sept 4, 1833: Together with an account of the miraculous preservation of Mrs. Mary Applebee, who was confined in the cabin five days! The schooner being for the greater part of the time, immersed in water! By Mrs. Mary Applebee. Buffalo: H A Salisbury, 1834. [housed at only at the Buffalo & Erie County Public Library]
Ninety fathoms down: Canadian stories of the Great Lakes. by Mark Bourrie. Toronto: Houslow Press, 1995.
 
Pewabic: Deadly waters. by Francis E Reynolds. Alpena, MI: Sarge Publications, 1997.
 
Pewabic Shipwreck Collection. Archival/manuscript located only at Clarke Historical Library (Central Michigan University) - Mt Pleasant, MI
 
Schooners in peril. by James L Donahue. Cass City, MI: Anchor Publications, 1995. index
 
"Searching for Bodies recounts sinking of ship 'Benjamin Noble', 4/28/1914, on Lake Superior off Knife River." Oswego Palladium 5/1/1914.
 
Seaway era shipwrecks. by Skip Gillham. St Catherines, Ont: Riverbank Traders, 1994.
 
Ships gone missing. by Robert J Hemming. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1992. index.
 
"Shipwreck!" by Emily Foster. Ohio. vol. 7 no. 3 (June 1984): 12-15. [Ohiana - shipwreck]
 
Shipwreck!: A comprehensive directory of over 3,700 shipwrecks on the Great Lakes: Includes the most dangerous spot on the lakes, largest freighters lost, the most dangerous decade, treasure ships. by David D Swayze. Boyne City, MI: Harbor House Publishers, 1992. index
 
Shipwreck tales: The St Clair River (to 1900). by Cris Kohl. Chatham, Ont: Kohl, 1987.
 
Shipwrecked on the Great Lakes. by Deena J Dunsmore. Goodells, MI: Grand Isle Press, 1994. index
 
Shipwrecks of Isle Royale National Park: The archeological survey. Duluth, MN: Lake Superior Port Cities, 1994.
Shipwrecks of Lake Huron - the great sweetwater sea, including the Michigan-Huron-Mackinac Straits area. by Jack D Parker. Au Train, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1986.
 
The shipwrecks of Lake Superior. by Julius Wolff. Duluth, MN: Lake Superior Marine Museum Association, 1979.
 
Shipwrecks of the Great Lakes. by Tom Tumilty.
 
Shipwrecks of the Lakes: told in story and picture. by Dana ThomasBowen. Cleveland: Freshwater Press, 1952.
 
A short guide to the shipwrecks of Thunder Bay. Alpena, MI: Thunder Bay Underwater Preserve, 1992.
 
Sinkings, salvages and shipwrecks. By Robert E Brugess. New York: American Heritage Press, 1970. bibliography, no index
 
Sole survivor: A tale of shipwreck on the Great Lakes and one man's survival against overwhelming odds: Dennis Hale's own story. Lexington, MI: Lakeshore Charters & Marine Exploration, 1996. [Daniel J Morrell's shipwreck]
 
Sounds of disaster: Great Lakes shipwrecks. Marquette, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1993.
 
Steamboats in ice, 1872: More true stories about shipwreck and other historical events during one incredible year on the Great Lakes. Cass City, MI: Anchor Publications, 1995. index

Steaming through smoke and fire, 1871: True stories of shipwreck and disaster on the Great Lakes. by James L Donahue. Holt: Thunder Bay Press, 1995. index
 
Stormy Seas: Triumphs and tragedies of Great Lakes ships. by Wes Oleszewski. Marquette, MI: Avery Color Studios, 1991. index
 
Terrible disaster: The Steamer Champlain burned at Midnight off Charlevoix Point from the Boyne Citizen June 17, 1887. reprinted in Backtracking Pa's Roots Vol 12 no. 2 (Summer 1998):1, 3.
 
Terrifying steamboat stories: True tales of shipwreck, death, and disaster on the Great Lakes. West Bloomfield, MI: Altwerger & Mandel, 1991.
 
Voices of the Lakes: Shipwrecks and our maritime heritage. St Ignace, MI: Great Lakes Diving Council, 1998.
 
Wild gales and tattered sails: The shipwrecks of northwestern Lake Michigan from Two Creeks, WI to Dutch Johns Point, Michigan and all of the Bay of Green Bay. by Paul John Creviere, Jr. DePere, WI: Paul John Creviere, Jr, 1997. ship and name index.
 
Wreck ashore: The United States Life-Saving Service on the Great Lakes. Duluth, MN: Lake Superior Port Cities, 1994. index
 
The wreck of the Asia: Ships, shoals, storms and a Great Lakes Survey. by Robert Higgins. Waterloo: Escart Press, 1995.
 
Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald. by Frederick Stonehouse. Au Train, MI: The Studios, 1996.
 
The wreck of the Erie Belle, told in story and picture. by C E Stein. Wheatley, Ont: Ship'n Shore Pub. Co., 1970.
 
"Wreck of the Idaho." excerpt from History of the Great Lakes. (Chicago, J.H. Beers & Co., 1899) pg. 776-777
 
"Wreck of the Lady Elgin." excerpt from History of the Great Lakes. (Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co 1899) pg. 683-684
 
The wreck of the Maria Richmond. by James P. Frye. 1902. Archive /manuscript housed at the Bentley Library (University of Michigan).

"The wreck of the Walk-in-the-Water, pioneer steamboat on the western lakes." by Mary A Witherell Palmer. Publications of the Buffalo Historical Society. vol 5 (1902): 319-323.
 
Wrecks and rescues of the Great Lakes: A photographic history. by James P Barry. Lansing, MI: Thunder Bay Press, 1994. index
 
Trivia  Page Index
Five sisters: 299 things every Great Lakes buff should know . by Bill Keefe. Algonac, MI: Reference Publications, 1991. index
 
Gateway to oblivion: The Great Lakes Bermuda Triangle. New York: Avon, 1980.
 
How to make a steamship float and other Great Lakes recipes. Boyne City, MI: Harbor House, 1985.
 
Treasured recipes from the shipwreck coast. by Jan M Holt. Sault Ste Marie, MI: Great Lakes Shipwreck Society, 1996.
 

US Army Corps of Engineers   Page Index
Essayons: A history of the Detroit District, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. by John W. Larson. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Detroit District, 1981. index
Chronicles the evolution of the Detroit Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers.
 
 

 
Last updated 21 May 1999.
Copyright © 1998 [A. D. Wesch]. All rights reserved.