Wooden Ships and Iron Men
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"Wooden Ships and Iron Men", by Frederick William Wallace, 
published in 1937

Marj Kohli marj@ist.uwaterloo.ca
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Found this in a book called "Wooden Ships and Iron Men", by Frederick
William Wallace, published in 1937. I thought it interesting in that it is
about lake boats making ocean crossings.

"There were plenty of square-riggers built on the Great Lakes--a few
barques, but mostly barquentines, brigs, brigantines and topsail
schooners--and most were engaged in freighting on the inland fresh-water
seas during the summer season of open water. A few lake vessels came out,
via the St. Lawrence Canals, to engage in ocean trading during the winter,
while others made regular voyages with lumber from Great Lakes ports across
the Atlantic.

In 1877, Calvin and Breck, at Garden Island, near Kingston, Ont., built the
barque Garden Island. She was 168 feet long, stem-head to taff-rail, 36.4
feet beam, and 21.3 feet deep, and registered 870 tons. Her construction
was of oak, elm, and pine, and she was iron- and copper-fastened. The
Garden Island was a salt-water trader, and was afloat in 1905 under the
Norwegian flag as the Trio." p. 274

"In closing this section of Canadian shipping activities during the
'sixties, we might mention that two vessels left Toronto, Ontario, for
outside foreign ports and both returned safely. One of these craft was the
brigantine Sea Gull, built at Oakville, Ont., in the 'sixties by John
Simpson. She was chartered for a voyage from Toronto to Port Natal, South
Africa, and her rig was changed from that of a schooner to a brigantine.
She was fitted with double topsail and topgallant yards, and cost her owner
about $16,000. In June, 1869, she left Toronto and sailed out into salt
water via the St. Lawrence canals under command of Captain Frank Jackman,
of Toronto, and a crew of nine fresh-water sailors. She arrived after three
months' voyaging without mishap, and crossed the bar at Port Natal without
the assistance of a tug.

In January, 1870, she left for Boston with a cargo of sugar and other
products, and some 37 passengers, and arrived after a passage of 98 days.
From Boston she went to St. John's, N.F., with a cargo of flour, and from
thence in ballast across to Sydney, N.S., where she loaded coal for
Montreal. From the Canadian metropolis, she towed up the canals to
Kingston, Ont., and freighted a prosaic cargo of cordwood for her home
port, Toronto. When she arrived there, the Sea Gull had been gone 13
months, and made a profit on her boyages of $2,000." pp. 150-1

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